Definitive Guide To Off Leash Training With Your Dog

* All Sniffspot articles are reviewed by certified trainers for quality, please see bottom of article for details *

Looking for ways to add some variety to your dog’s daily routine? You might want to try some off leash exercise. Although it might sound intimidating at first, off leash exercise is great for many dogs—including reactive dogs—and great for owners, too!

The benefits of off leash exercise for dogs

There are many benefits of off leash exercise, for humans and dogs alike. They include:

Physical health: Being off leash lets your dog exercise in ways that aren’t possible when they are on a leash. They may be able to run freely, swim, or hike. These activities can offer higher intensity exercise than most leashed walks or runs with your dog, and can be important contributors to your dog’s health. 

Mental health: Off leash activities give your dog the freedom to roam, explore, and sniff new things, all of which give your dog much-needed mental stimulation.

Building trust: Choosing to do off leash training with your dog means taking the time to teach them cues that will ensure their safety, such as “sit,” “stay,” and “come.” This training builds trust between you and your dog, ultimately leading to a closer relationship.

Before you start

Be aware of the risks: There is no way to guarantee complete safety with off leash exercise. Because nearly all outdoor environments are unpredictable, you can’t be completely sure that your dog will never be in harm’s way. However, you can mitigate these risks by choosing the right environment and doing lots of off leash training, which we’ll get to later.

Set the right expectations: This point is more for you than for your dog. Ask yourself: what do I expect of my dog in a given environment, and how do I expect to train him to do these behaviors? 

​You should also manage your expectations around how quickly your dog will learn these new skills. Be aware that training takes time, repetition, and lots of patience. You will probably be teaching your dog multiple new skills, and she will have to employ them in new and distracting environments. This is a lot for a dog to learn, and will take some time! 

dog sit command

Establish good behaviors (for your dog and for you!): Just like setting the right expectations, establishing good behaviors requires you to do some thinking ahead of time. Ask yourself what good behavior will look like for your dog in an off leash environment. Your list will probably include things like excellent recall, paying attention to your cues, and (in some environments) staying close to you. These will become the behaviors you teach your dog during training.

In addition, you’ll need to think about what good behavior looks like for you. Think about what you want to accomplish with off leash training and outings, and how you want to respond to your dog in various situations. Dog training can be difficult and slow moving, and is not a one-time activity, but a lifelong process. Decide how you want to respond if the training is not going how you expected it to go, or if you feel yourself getting impatient.

Get to know your dog: Before you start off leash training, it’s important to step back and think “what do I know about my dog?” You’ll want to think about things like body language, temperament, and triggers. Think about what makes your dog nervous, what makes her happy, and what she likes to “work” for (such as toys or treats). Be sure to keep in mind what triggers your dog, such as loud noises or strangers, and what her body language looks like when she is triggered vs. when she is calm. These are all important things to keep in mind when you begin your training!

Get the right gear: Off leash training doesn’t require any expensive purchases, but you’ll want to make sure you have a couple of things on hand:

  • High value treats or toys, to reward your dog during training
  • A clicker (if you plan to use clicker training – more on that later)
  • Optional but handy: a long line for recall training

Other considerations before getting started:

  • You’ll want to have a quiet, safe environment for beginning your training. 
  • Before venturing outside your home to get any off leash exercise, make sure your dog is microchipped (and that the microchip information is up to date), and has a collar with an identification tag.
dog training sit

Choose the right location: Eventually, you’ll work your way up to training your dog when distractions are present. However, in the beginning, you need a space that is safe, secure, and as quiet as possible. 

  • A Sniffspot location can be a great place for your beginning, intermediate or advanced off leash training sessions. With Sniffspot, you can rent safe and private spaces for you and your dog. Sniffspot is extra safe, and has more screening measures in place than public dog parks do. This helps Sniffspots stay extra clean, and ensures that the Sniffspot you reserve will be right for your needs. Plus, you can decide whether you want a Sniffspot where other dogs will be present, or a private one where you can train your dog one-on-one. Check out our tips for visiting a new Sniffspot.
  • For intermediate or advanced training, you might consider an off-leash dog park. Dog parks can be good places to get in some socializing with other dogs, and are a good place to practice training in a distracting environment. A word of warning: if you have a dog who is reactive to other dogs, a dog park might not be for you. 
  • Be aware of leash laws. Leash laws can differ by city, state, and recreation areas. If possible, read up on the applicable leash laws before heading out. Be sure to read all posted signs in the area, and make sure you are not breaking any leash laws before starting your off leash training.

The training process

Beginner training: There are a few behaviors that are key for any dog that will be in an off leash environment:

  • “Stay”
  • “Leave it”
  • Excellent recall: this means you need to be able to “recall” your dog, or make him come to you, at a moment’s notice and in almost any circumstance.
  • Check-ins: this means your dog should stay close to you and should turn her head toward you to “check in” with you at regular intervals.

To train these behaviors, you’ll need to use positive reinforcement, meaning your dog gets a reward when she does what you ask. Use a clicker or a word like “yes” to mark the moment when your dog correctly performs the behavior.

Here’s how to train your dog to come when called:

  1. Hold some treats in your hand, and your clicker if you’re using one. 
  2. Stand a few feet away from your dog, crouch down, and hold your hand out. 
  3. Try to encourage your dog to touch your hand with her nose—she will likely do this on her own (eventually) if she smells the treats. 
  4. When she successfully performs the behavior, immediately click your clicker or say “yes” to mark the good behavior, then give her a treat and praise.
  5. Repeat until your dog understands what you’re asking of her. This may take 10 or more repetitions, so be patient.
  6. Move further away, and do it again. Continue to move further and further away, and repeat the procedure.
  7. After your dog understands what it is you want, add a verbal cue, like “come.” Repeat the process, adding in your cue word when you encourage her to come with you.
  8. Repeat the process, including the cue word, at least 10 times so your dog understands.

You can also use your long line to aid in this process. 

A fun way to practice recall is to use Chirag Patel’s counting game, which uses counting and lots of treats to teach your dog that it’s fun to come when called! 

Although a lot of repetition is involved, try to limit your training sessions to 15 minutes so your dog doesn’t get tired or overwhelmed. You may have to do several sessions. Remember, patience is key!

The process for training your dog to “stay” is similar, but with a couple of key differences:

  • In addition to the “stay” cue, choose a “release” word that indicates the “stay” is over. This may be something like “free” or “all done.”
  • Don’t have treats in your hand, as that will encourage your dog to come to you. Instead, keep them somewhere close by so you can grab one quickly.
  1. Position your dog however you want them (sitting, standing, or in a “down” position).
  2. Give them a hand signal that you want to associate with “stay,” such as showing them your palm.
  3. Almost immediately, say your release word, mark the behavior with a “yes” or a click, and give them a treat. 
  4. Repeat several times until they understand what you’re asking.
  5. Add the “stay” cue along with the hand signal, and repeat the process: stay, click, treat.

Again, you will probably have to repeat all steps of the process several times, and may have to have several sessions with your dog before they fully understand.

Here’s how the trainers at Dog’s Day Out recommend training your dog to “leave it”: 

  1. Gather two different types of treats. One should be fairly run-of-the-mill, or not that exciting to your dog. The other should be “high value”: something your dog loves, perhaps small bites of turkey or cheese.
  2. Hold one type of treat in each hand. If you’re using a clicker, hold the clicker in the same hand that’s holding the high value treat. Put both hands behind your back.
  3. Make a fist with your hand that’s holding the “lower value” treat, and let your dog sniff it.
  4. As soon as she finishes sniffing, click your clicker or say “yes,” and offer her the high value treat.
  5. Repeat, adding in the cue “leave it” after you’ve done it a few times. Keep repeating until she immediately stops sniffing your hand upon you saying “leave it.”

As your dog gets better at this, you will advance to tossing the low-value treat a few feet away and teaching them to “leave it” in order to get the high value treat.

And finally, here’s how to teach your dog to “check in” with you:

  1. Start by having some treats on you as you go throughout your day at home. Reward your dog with a click (or a “yes”) and a treat every time she looks at you throughout the day. (Even though her looking at you is “accidental” at this point, she will soon learn that it’s a desired behavior.)
  2. Leash your dog, take some treats with you, and go outside. Continue to reward every time your dog looks at you.
  3. Repeat as needed!

​Intermediate training: For each behavior, gradually increase the number of distractions in the environment. This may mean moving from indoors to outdoors, or from your own familiar backyard to a Sniffspot

For the “stay” cue specifically, gradually increase the amount of time your dog has to stay, and the activities you do while your dog stays. For instance, once your dog has mastered “stay” while you’re looking at him, advance to briefly looking away while your dog stays, and rewarding him when he does. 

Be sure not to move too quickly. Once your dog has mastered a basic skill, it may take several sessions before they can move on to performing the behavior with the addition of distractions or longer durations. Increase the difficulty of each behavior as gradually as possible. If you advance to the next step and it seems like your dog doesn’t understand what you want from him, that means you need to back up and go more slowly.

Advanced training: Add even more difficulties and distractions! (Again, be sure to do this very gradually.) You might take your training to an area that’s much more distracting, like a dog park or dog beach (as long as your dog isn’t reactive to other dogs). Mastering a skill in a dog park or on a dog beach is a whole other level! (Note: if you take your training to a dog park or beach, do not use treats if other dogs are present, as it may cause food aggression in some dogs.) 

For the “stay” cue, in addition to training your dog to master it in distracting environments, practice having him stay while you do other things at home: watch TV for a few minutes, cook, etc. 

For all stages of training, make sure to go slowly, have patience, and reward your dog every time he performs the behavior you want—no matter how long it takes him to get there.

Special considerations for reactive dogs: A reactive dog is one who responds to stimuli with an abnormal level of intensity, according to Applied Animal Behaviorist Karen Overall, M.A., V.M.D., Ph.D. 

The key to training a reactive dog is to know what his triggers are. For instance, some dogs may be reactive to other dogs, to strangers, or to skateboards. When doing off leash training with a reactive dog, restrict access to these triggers as much as possible, especially in the beginning. 

If your dog is reactive to other dogs or to people, you will need to think seriously about what off leash exercise will look like for him. Make sure you never put your dog in a position where he can hurt himself or others. A private Sniffspot is a great place for dogs with these triggers, while a dog beach or hiking spot likely is not. 

Off leash training programs: You might want to consider having a trainer work with you and your dog on their off leash skills. Dog trainers can be a great option, especially for dog parents who are new to training.

  • Pros: Trainers can teach you and your dog a lot, and can be especially helpful if you’ve recently adopted a dog or have never trained a dog before. Trainers are great resources and can help you in the beginning, intermediate, or advanced stage. They may be an especially good option if you’re feeling frustrated or feel like your training isn’t getting through to your dog. 
  • Cons and considerations: Though the cost varies by trainer and by location, dog training can be costly. You’ll also want to make sure you find the right trainer. Be sure to search for one who only uses positive reinforcement and “fear free” training. Lastly, remember that hiring a trainer isn’t a substitute for doing the work of training your dog. Once the trainer leaves, it’s up to you to reinforce the behaviors they’ve helped you and your dog learn!

Managing off leash training on an ongoing basis

What to do if your dog runs away: If your dog gets away from you in an off leash environment, remain calm. Using the happiest voice you can, try to use your recall word (“come” or similar). If that doesn’t work, brandish any high value treats you have on you, and call your dog again in a happy voice. 

If you dog gets away from you and you cannot find her, what you do next will depend on the environment you’re in. If you are in a confined area, keep searching and offering treats. If you are in a larger or unfenced area (such as a hiking trail) and cannot find your dog, you may need to bring in the help of a ranger or other official. 

In all cases, continue to offer treats and to sound friendly. Make yourself as appealing as possible with treats and a happy voice. Try not to let on that you are scared or angry. You want your dog to come back to you at all costs.

ID tags and microchips: Before you begin off leash training, you’ll need to make sure your dog is microchipped and that the chips information is up to date. A microchip is a tiny electronic chip that is implanted into a pet. The information encoded into the chip is readable by a scanner. If you adopt a dog from a shelter or rescue group, your dog might come with a microchip already implanted. If they didn’t, make an appointment with your vet to get your dog “chipped.” After the chip is implanted, you’ll need to register the microchip number with the appropriate database, which varies depending on the company that manufactured your dog’s chip. You can search the Pet Microchip Lookup to find the company that manufactured your pet’s chip, then register your information with them.

Your dog should also always be wearing an identification tag that has his name and your phone number on it. This is true for all dogs, but is especially true if you are going to be engaging in off leash exercise outside your home.

Learn how to safely break up a dog fight: We all hope our dogs will never get into a fight, but you’ll want to be prepared just in case. You need to know how to break up a dog fight without getting bitten by one of the dogs. Dr. Sophia Yin, DVM, MS, says “the number one way to avoid being bitten is to avoid trying to grab the head or neck area.” Instead, grab your dog by the rear end or by their rear legs (in a “wheelbarrow” pose), and pull them away from the other dog. 

You can also try distracting the dogs using a spray bottle, loud noise, or a cue that tends to get their attention, such as “let’s get in the car!” 

owner running with dog


Although exercising your dog off leash comes with some risks, it’s a great tool for dogs’ mental and physical health, and can be especially good for reactive dogs under the right circumstances. It’s important to know the risks, set the right expectations, and to have a thorough understanding of your dog’s tendencies and triggers. Do your research and commit to your off leash training, and you can have a lifetime of fun, safe, and rewarding off leash experiences with your dog. And when you are ready, book a spot near you!

Trainers that reviewed this article

There is so much misinformation out there, we want to make sure we only provide the highest quality information to our community. We have all of our articles reviewed by qualified, positive-only trainers. The trainers that review our content are reviewed by other trainers to ensure that we have the best quality filters on our content. 

These is the trainer that reviewed this article:

Danette Johnston
Owner – Dog’s Day Out, Ballard, WA
Certified Professional Dog Trainer (CPDT-KA)
Licensed AKC CGC Evaluator
NW Coordinator, Doggone Safe

Dog Separation Anxiety

* All Sniffspot articles are reviewed by certified trainers for quality, please see bottom of article for details *

​Separation anxiety in dogs is fairly common, but if it’s severe enough, it can really disrupt your life as well as your dog’s. In this article, we’ll cover how to recognize separation anxiety and what to do about it.

Symptoms of separation anxiety

A dog with separation anxiety will exhibit symptoms of stress when they’re left alone. Some of the most common symptoms of separation anxiety are:

  • Scratching at doors
  • Destructive chewing
  • Whining, howling or barking
  • Urinating or defecating indoors (in dogs that are otherwise house-trained)
  • Escaping or attempts to escape
  • Pacing back and forth

Behavior that is not separation anxiety

Some symptoms of separation anxiety overlap with other behavior issues. Keep in mind that the symptoms of separation anxiety are specific to being left alone, so if your dog is exhibiting any of the behaviors listed below while you’re home, the problem isn’t separation anxiety.

  • Boredom: A dog who is bored may exhibit destructive chewing, whining or other symptoms that may look similar to separation anxiety. But a dog who is bored will likely do this while you are home (although they might also do it when you’re gone). If you suspect your dog might be bored, try increasing the amount of exercise they get each day, and give them toys that promote mental stimulation, like food puzzles. 
  • Potty training: A puppy or dog who is not fully potty trained may have accidents in the house. Although indoor urination or defecation can be a symptom of separation anxiety, that is only true if the dog is otherwise fully house-trained. It’s common for a puppy or a dog who is new to your household to have accidents, and it does not indicate separation anxiety, but the need for more training.
  • Other puppy behavior: Puppies may exhibit myriad other behaviors that don’t necessarily indicate separation anxiety, but may be indicative of the need for more training (e.g. scratching at doors or chewing on things that aren’t toys).

Why do dogs get separation anxiety?

We don’t have any conclusive evidence that tells us why some dogs get separation anxiety, while others don’t. It does not appear to be related to breed. However, dogs who are adopted from shelters suffer from separation anxiety more than dogs who have been kept by the same family since puppyhood. For this reason, we think separation anxiety may be tied to the dog losing an important person, or group of people, earlier in their life. (However, it could also be that people relinquish dogs with severe separation anxiety to shelters more often, and that is why the behavior appears more common in shelter dogs.)

There are also other, more minor triggers that can cause separation anxiety. These include a change in schedule, a change of residence, or the sudden absence of a household member (such as a family member who died or moved away).

How to help with separation anxiety

  • Thundershirts or other “anxiety wraps”: Some dogs find these soothing for various types of anxiety. Although they are used more for situational anxiety (like fireworks or thunderstorms), they are sometimes used for separation anxiety as well.Thundershirts (and other anxiety wraps) apply a constant, mild pressure to the dog’s torso, similar to swaddling a baby. Some dogs are soothed by these, while others aren’t. It’s difficult to know ahead of time whether it will be effective for your dog, but you can always make a DIY anxiety wrap first to see how your dog responds. ​
  • Anti-anxiety dog beds: It’s tough to definitively say whether these beds will help with separation anxiety, as no studies have looked into the question, but they may prove useful for dogs who sleep in a different room than you and experience separation anxiety overnight. These are also a low-risk purchase (besides the cost) since they are not going to have an adverse affect on your dog’s anxiety or health.There are several types of dog beds that might help dogs with separation anxiety by providing them with comfort: 
    • Bolsters, which are raised edges that run along the side of a bed (these are ideal for dogs who like to rest their head on raised surfaces when they are laying down)
    • Burrow beds, also called “cave-style” beds, which are similar to a sleeping bag and are ideal for dogs who feel safest under blankets
    • Donut-shaped fuzzy beds that are soft, fluffy and cozy and ideal for dogs who love soft surfaces.
  • Dog calming sprays: Calming sprays use calming pheromones to help soothe stressed out dogs (or cats). You just spray (or use a diffuser) in the room that your dog is in. But do they work? It’s tough to say. Most of the published research has been done on Feliway (cat pheromones) and D.A.P. (Dog Appeasing Pheromone). In several studies, both of these products appeared to help soothe stressed pets, at least under some circumstances. But it’s important to know that most of these studies were funded by the products’ maker.
  • Calming treats for dogs: Many different “calming treats” are available these days. Calming treats may contain many different ingredients, from herbs to melatonin to CBD. (Note: CBD treats are becoming increasingly popular, and some dog parents report that they find them effective. However, at this time, there are no FDA-approved CBD products for pets. Keep this in mind and exercise caution when purchasing CBD products.) Calming treats are another product whose efficacy is not very well proven. If they do work for your dog, bear in mind that you will still need to use them in combination with behavior modification training.
  • Dog separation anxiety training: Ultimately, you will want to help your dog feel better about the act of you leaving. This is done using counterconditioning, which means changing the dog’s association with an event (or object, person etc). The process will look different depending how severe your dog’s separation anxiety is. The ASPCA has a helpful article that outlines counterconditioning for separation anxiety. In moderate to severe cases, you will want to find a trainer to help you. The AKC has a helpful guide to finding a qualified trainer.
  • Anti-anxiety medication for dogs: Prescription medication can be an effective avenue for dogs with moderate to severe separation anxiety. (Over-the-counter medication will not be enough for dogs with separation anxiety of this magnitude.) It’s important to talk to your vet about it first, and to keep in mind that medication must be used in combination with behavior modification training. If used correctly, medication can greatly help your dog to feel less stressed, and therefore be able to undergo behavior modification training. For more in-depth information, check out our article When And How to Think About Medication for Anxious Dogs.

What not to do for separation anxiety

  • Punishment: Never punish your dog for separation anxiety. Your dog is not acting anxious out of “disobedience,” but out of distress. If your dog has separation anxiety, they are in a state of stress. Punishment will only upset them further and can make the problem worse.
  • Getting another dog: This may sound like a good idea, but getting another dog usually doesn’t work, because your dog’s separation anxiety is related to being separated from you specifically (not being alone in general).
  • Crating (in most cases): In most cases of moderate to severe separation anxiety, a crate is not advisable. Malena DeMartini-Price, a leading expert on separation anxiety in dogs, told Sniffspot that too often, a crate solves the problem for the human, but not for the dog: “What I often see is when the dog is stressed and destroying or escaping the crate, people just get a stronger crate…now the dog can’t escape and the people don’t see any damage, but the dog is still stressed and the problem is absolutely still there for the dog.” ​

Separation anxiety can be frustrating, but with training and a dose of patience, you can help your dog manage their separation anxiety and live a happier life.

Trainer Review of this Article

There is so much misinformation out there, we want to make sure we only provide the highest quality information to our community. We have all of our articles reviewed by qualified, positive-only trainers.  

This is the trainer that reviewed this article:

Danette Johnston
​Owner – Dog’s Day Out, Ballard, WA
Certified Professional Dog Trainer (CPDT-KA)
Licensed AKC CGC Evaluator
NW Coordinator, Doggone Safe